Nursing Interventions for Hypertension

Hypertension is a chronic medical condition with increased blood pressure in the arteries. This increase causes the heart to work harder than normal to circulate blood through the blood vessels. Blood pressure involves two measurements, systolic and diastolic, depending on whether the heart muscle contraction (systole) or relaxation between beats (diastole). Normal blood pressure at rest is in the range of systolic (top reading) 100-140 mmHg and diastolic (bottom reading) of 60-90 mmHg. High blood pressure occurs when the constant is at 140/90 mmHg or more.

Hypertension is divided into primary hypertension (essential) or secondary hypertension. Approximately 90-95% of cases classified as "primary hypertension", which means high blood pressure without a clear medical cause. Other conditions that affect the kidneys, arteries, heart, endocrine system or other causes 5-10% of cases (secondary hypertension).

Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke, myocardial infarction (heart attack), heart failure, arterial aneurysm (eg aortic aneurysm), peripheral arterial disease, and causes of chronic kidney disease. Even a modest increase in arterial blood pressure associated with a shorter life expectancy. Changes in diet and lifestyle can improve blood pressure control and reduce the risk of health-related complications. However, the drug is often required in some people if lifestyle changes alone proved ineffective or insufficient and drug usually must be taken for life until the doctor decides no longer need to take medication. Someone who has had high blood pressure, under normal conditions can be returned and the blood pressure is to be aware, many cases of stroke occurs when a person off drugs. And many people do not think that someone who usually have low blood pressure at one time may also have high blood pressure. Therefore, control of blood pressure on a regular basis to be conducted.

Nursing Diagnosis for Hypertension

Decreased Cardiac Output related to increased afterload, vasoconstriction, myocardial ischemia, ventricular hypertrophy

Nursing Intervention for Hypertension
  • Monitor blood pressure
  • Note the central and peripheral pulse quality
  • Auscultation of heart and breath sounds
  • Observe skin color, moisture, temperature and capillary filling time
  • Observe the general edema
  • Provide quiet environment, comfortable
  • Suggest to reduce activity.
  • Maintain restrictions on activities such as recess ditemapt bed / chair
  • Help perform self-care activities as needed
  • Perform actions such as a comfortable back and neck massage
  • Encourage relaxation techniques
  • Give fluid restriction and sodium diet as indicated.

Nursing Diagnosis for Hypertension

Risk for Ineffective Tissue perfusion: Peripheral, Renal, Gastrointestinal, Cardiopulmonary related to impaired circulation

Nursing Intervention for Hypertension

  • Maintain bed rest, elevate head of bed
  • Assess blood pressure at admission in both arms, sleeping, sitting with arterial pressure monitoring if available
  • Maintain fluid and drugs.
  • Observe the sudden hypotension.
  • Measure inputs and expenditures
  • Monitor electrolytes, BUN, creatinine.
  • Ambulation according to ability; avoid fatigue