Asthma is caused by the interaction of environment and genetics which is a combination of complex and not fully understood. All these factors affect both the severity and response to therapy. An increase in the rate of asthma is caused by a change lately epigenetic factors (inherited besides an association with DNA sequences) and environmental change.
Asthma is characterized by the presence of recurrent episodic wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing. Sputum may be formed in the lung due to cough but difficult to remove. During the healing period after the attack may have formed what is called like pus caused by the high content of white blood cells called eosinophils. Symptoms are usually worse at night or morning time or in response to a sporting event or cold air. In some people with asthma there are rarely show symptoms, in response to a trigger, while a number of other people with asthma may indicate a real and persistent symptoms.
Nursing Diagnosis for Asthma
Ineffective airway clearance related to the mucus accumulation
- Auscultation of breath sounds, record the sound of breath, for example: wheezing, erekeis, ronchi.
R/ : Some degree of bronchial spasms occur with airway obstruction. Faint breath sounds with expiratory wheeze (empysema), no breathing function (severe asthma).
- Observation of the characteristic cough, persistent, hacking cough, wet. Auxiliary actions to improve effectiveness cough efforts.
R/: The cough can be settled but is not effective, especially on elderly clients, acute pain / weakness.
- Assess the patient to a safe position, for example: elevation of the head does not sit on the backrest.
R/: Elevation head is not easier for respiratory function by using gravity.
- Review / monitor respiratory frequency, record the ratio of inspiration and expiration.
R/: Tachypnoea usually found in some degree and can be found at the reception during the stress / the process of acute infection. Respiratory frequency can be slowed down and elongated than the expiration of inspiration.
- Collaboration based drug Spiriva indikasi.Bronkodilator 1 × 1 (inhalation). R/: Freeing airway spasm, wheezing and mucus production.
Nursing Diagnosis for Asthma
Ineffective breathing pattern related to decreased lung expansion.
- Auscultation of breath sounds and record sounds like crekels breath, wheezing.
R / rhonchi and wheezing accompanying airway obstruction / respiratory failure.
- Assess respiratory frequency and depth of chest expansion. Record the respiratory effort including the use of auxiliary respiratory muscles / nasal dilation.
R / velocity usually reaches a depth of respiration varies depending on the degree of respiratory failure. Limited chest expansion associated with atelectasis and / or chest pain.
- Elevate the head and help change the position.
R/ Sitting high enable lung expansion and eases breathing.
- Observation of the pattern of coughing and secretions character.
R / alveolar congestion often result in cough / irritation.
- Provide supplemental oxygen.
- Provide additional humidifikasi eg nebulizer.